Mortality rates of the population from cardiovascular diseases, in particular, cerebrovascular accidents in Russia are 4-5 times higher than in Canada and the United States. In European countries, the mortality rate from cerebrovascular diseases is also significantly lower than in Russia. The urgency of the problem of stroke prevention is emphasized by the fact that in our country 25-30% of men and 40% of women die from cerebrovascular diseases (data from the All-Russian Center for Preventive Medicine).
The brain receives blood from the heart through the blood vessels. The blood supply to the brain is carried out by two carotid and two vertebral arteries. The most co
mmon cause of impaired patency is atherosclerosis. The formation of atherosclerotic plaques in the lumen of the arteries leads to a narrowing of the lumen of the vessel and restriction of the flow of oxygen-enriched blood to the brain.
The main manifestations of chronic cerebrovascular accident
imbalance, unsteadiness when walking
visual disturbances – blurred vision, “veil in front of the eyes”
impaired concentration, memory loss
However, it must be remembered that the disease may be asymptomatic for a while, and quite often a stroke occurs without any previous symptoms. The vast majority of strokes occur as a result of the progression of atherosclerosis of the carotid (carotid) arteries. A sudden blockage of a vessel by a thrombus or a fragment of a destroyed atherosclerotic plaque leads to damage to one or another part of the brain.
Early diagnosis of the disease and timely treatment started can significantly reduce the risk of tragic consequences. A simple, reliable and affordable way to identify atherosclerotic plaques is ultrasound – duplex scanning. With a significant narrowing (stenosis) of the artery by more than 60-70%, the risk of stroke becomes very high. In this case, the most reliable way to prevent a tragic outcome is to remove the blockage and eliminate the obstacle to blood flow.
What to do?
If you have previously suffered a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA, microstroke). If you find in yourself the above-mentioned signs of cerebrovascular accident. If you are concerned about your health and want to undergo a preventive examination, then….
Seek advice from a vascular surgeon (Phlebologist, vascular surgeon), a neuropathologist (Neurologist). Examine the state of your blood vessels. The simplest method is ultrasound diagnostics – duplex scanning (Duplex vessels (neck, head, extremities, etc.)).
Conservative therapy: Measures to reduce the factors of cardiovascular disease. First of all – quitting smoking, controlling blood pressure, lowering cholesterol levels, adhering to a diet, an active lifestyle, and normalizing body weight.
Surgical treatment: the most common surgical intervention in the world is carotid endarterectomy. This intervention is performed with significant narrowing of the carotid arteries and involves opening the lumen of the affected vessel and removing an atherosclerotic plaque.
Balloon angioplasty https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angioplasty with stenting is an endovascular technique performed under local anesthesia through a puncture in the vessel. It consists in intravascular introduction of a special balloon to the site of narrowing of the carotid artery. When the balloon is inflated in the lumen of the artery, the narrowed portion of the vessel is expanded. To consolidate the effect, stenting is performed by placing an internal stent (frame) into the lumen of the vessel.